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Szumała P., Pacyna-Kuchta A., Wasik A. Proteolysis of whey protein isolates in nanoemulsion systems: impact of nanoemulsification and additional synthetic emulsifiers. Food Chemistry (2021) 129356.


Impact Factor 2019 = 6.306, Pkt. MNiSW = 200


Nanoemulsions are currently of interest in the functional food sector because their small droplet size (100-500 nm) provides a number of potential advantages over conventional emulsions. This study concerned the behavior of nanoemulsions stabilized with whey proteins and two synthetic emulsifiers (Tween 80 and Croduret), and exposed to conditions simulating the human upper gastrointestinal tract. In particular, the effect of synthetic emulsifiers (food additives) on the interfacial composition and digestion rate of milk proteins at the interface of nanoemulsions was determined. The results indicate that the protein was partially co-absorbed with only one synthetic emulsifier (Croduret) at the interface, which made protein more resistant to digestion in the nanoemulsion system. This suggests that the degree of protein digestion can be controlled by appropriate selection of synthetic emulsifiers and presenting the protein in nanoemulsion system.


Staroń R., Rzucidło M., Macierzanka A., Krawczyk M., Gutkowski K., Krupa Ł. Unresectable malignant obstructive jaundice: a 2-year experience of EUS-guided biliary drainage. BMJ Supportive & Palliative Care (2021)


Impact Factor 2019 = 2.681 , Pkt. MNiSW = 70


Objectives Endoscopic biliary drainage is a first-line treatment in patients with unresectable malignant biliary obstruction. In most cases the drainage is conducted using endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). Percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage or endosonography-guided biliary drainage (EUS-BD) represents therapeutic options after unsuccessful ERCP. Here we report on 2 years experience in the management of patients diagnosed with malignant biliary obstruction using EUS-BD.
Methods Retrospective data were collected on patients who underwent EUS-BD due to malignant biliary obstruction at our centre between April 2016 and April 2018. Only patients who had two unsuccessful attempts of ERCP prior to EUS-BD were included. We analysed the technical success (ie, creation of anastomosis and successful placement of a stent) and complication rate of EUS-BD, and monitored changes in serum bilirubin and liver function tests after 2 days, and at least 2 weeks, following the procedure.
Results Screening of 1781 ERCP procedures performed in our department during the inclusion period led to the identification of 31 patients (18 women, age range 51–92 years, 58% with pancreatic cancer) who fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Hepaticogastrostomy and choledochoduodenostomy were performed in 12 and 19 patients, respectively. The technical success rate was 97% and the complication rate was 12.9%. EUS-BD resulted in a significant decrease in serum bilirubin (p<0.01).
Conclusions EUS-BD represents a reasonable therapeutic option after unsuccessful ERCP in patients with malignant biliary obstruction. Possible complications have to be kept in mind and this procedure should be performed at centres experienced in ERCP and EUS.



Souza J. S., Pacyna-Kuchta A. D., Schmauder Teixeira da Cunha L., Schneider Costa E., Niedzielski P., Machado Torres J. P. Interspecific and intraspecific variation in organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls using non-destructive samples from Pygoscelis penguins. Environmental Pollution (2021) 116590.


Impact Factor 2019 = 6.792, Pkt. MNiSW = 100


As humans are present in Antarctica only for scientific and tourism-related purposes, it is often described as a pristine region. However, studies have identified measurable levels of Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs), such as organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), in the Antarctic region. These are highly toxic anthropogenic compounds with tendency to travel long distances and reach remote environments, where they can bioaccumulate in the biota. Penguins are exposed to POPs mainly through their diet, which they partially eliminate via feathers. Species of the genus Pygoscelis occur around Antarctic continent and its surrounding regions, and can act as indicators of contaminants that reach the continent. Here, we report OCP and PCB levels in feathers of male and female penguins of P. adeliae, P. antarcticus and P. papua from King George Island, South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. Interspecific, sex- and body-size-related differences were investigated in the contamination profiles of PCBs and OCPs. Feather samples were collected from adult penguins (n = 41). Quantification of compounds was performed by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The three Pygocelis species presented similar contamination profiles, with higher concentrations of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (∑DDT; 1.56-3.82 ng g−1 dw), lighter PCB congeners (∑PCB: 11.81-18.65 ng g−1 dw) and HCB (hexachlorobenzene: 1.65-4.06 ng g−1 dw). Amongst the three penguin species, P. antarcticus had lower and P. papua higher concentrations of most of the compounds identified. We found interspecific differences in POP accumulation as well as sex differences in POP concentrations. Our data indicate a small but significant positive correlation between body size and the concentrations of some compounds. Despite the overall low concentrations found, this study increases knowledge of the occurrence of POPs in Antarctic penguins, thereby reinforcing concerns that Antarctica, although remote and perceived to be protected, is not free from the impact of anthropogenic pollutants.


Kłosowska-Chomiczewska I., Kotewicz-Siudowska A., Artichowicz W., Macierzanka A., Głowacz-Różyńska A., Szumała P., Mędrzycka K., Hallmann E., Karpenko E., Jungnickel C. Towards Rational Biosurfactant Design-Predicting Solubilization in Rhamnolipid Solutions. Molecules, 26 (2021) 10.3390.


Impact Factor 2019 = 3.267, Pkt. MNiSW = 100


The efficiency of micellar solubilization is dictated inter alia by the properties of the solubilizate, the type of surfactant, and environmental conditions of the process. We, therefore, hypothesized that using the descriptors of the aforementioned features we can predict the solubilization efficiency, expressed as molar solubilization ratio (MSR). In other words, we aimed at creating a model to find the optimal surfactant and environmental conditions in order to solubilize the substance of interest (oil, drug, etc.). We focused specifically on the solubilization in biosurfactant solutions. We collected data from literature covering the last 38 years and supplemented them with our experimental data for different biosurfactant preparations. Evolutionary algorithm (EA) and kernel support vector machines (KSVM) were used to create predictive relationships. The descriptors of biosurfactant (logPBS, measure of purity), solubilizate (logPsol, molecular volume), and descriptors of conditions of the measurement (T and pH) were used for modelling. We have shown that the MSR can be successfully predicted using EAs, with a mean R2val of 0.773 ± 0.052. The parameters influencing the solubilization efficiency were ranked upon their significance. This represents the first attempt in literature to predict the MSR with the MSR calculator delivered as a result of our research.


Majchrzak T., Wojnowski W., Głowacz-Różyńska A., Wasik A. On-line assessment of oil quality during deep frying using an electronic nose and proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry. Food Control, 121 (2021) 107659.


Impact Factor 2019 = 4.258, Pkt. MNiSW = 140


We describe a novel method for the quality assessment of oil utilized for deep frying. The method is based on the analysis of frying fumes using a custom electronic nose. The quality score could be obtained after less than 3 min of analysis and without interrupting the frying process or sampling the oil directly. The obtained results were correlated with the peroxide value using a multivariate linear regression model. The most relevant variables were selected based on heat maps and on the analysis of variance. The coefficients of determination for palm oil and rapeseed oil were 0.920 and 0.935, respectively. Real-time monitoring of selected VOCs in the frying fumes was performed using proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry. It was shown that 1-heptanol is a possible indicator of rapeseed oil's quality. The proposed method might be used to supplement the currently available techniques and could find implementation in the non-invasive on-line assessment of frying oils' quality during deep frying of foodstuffs.


Krupa Ł., Bajka B., Staroń R., Dupont D., Sing H., Gutkowski K., Macierzanka A. Comparing the permeability of human and porcine small intestinal mucus for particle transport studies. Scientific Reports 10 (2020) 20290.


Impact Factor 2019 = 3.998, Pkt. MNiSW = 140


The gastrointestinal mucus layer represents the last barrier between ingested food or orally administered pharmaceuticals and the mucosal epithelium. This complex gel structure plays an important role in the process of small intestinal absorption. It provides protection against hazardous particles such as bacteria but allows the passage of nutrients and drug molecules towards the intestinal epithelium. In scientific research, mucus from animal sources is usually used to simulate difficult-to-obtain human small intestinal mucus for investigating the intramucus transport of drug delivery systems or food nanoparticles. However, there is a lack of evidence the human mucus can be reliably substituted by animal counterparts for human-relevant transport models. In this report, a procedure for collecting human mucus has been described. More importantly, the permeability characteristics of human and porcine small intestinal mucus secretions to sub-micron sized particles have been compared under simulated intestinal conditions. Negatively charged, 500 nm latex beads were used in multiple-particle tracking experiments to examine the heterogeneity and penetrability of mucus from different sources. Diffusion of the probe particles in adult human ileal mucus and adult pig jejunal and ileal mucus revealed no significant differences in microstructural organisation or microviscosity between the three mucus types (P > 0.05). In contrast to this interspecies similarity, the intraspecies comparison of particle diffusivity in the mucus obtained from adult pigs vs. 2-week old piglets showed better penetrability of the piglet mucus. The mean Stokes–Einstein viscosity of the piglet jejunal mucus was approx. two times lower than the viscosity of the pig jejunal mucus (P < 0.05). All mucus structures were also visualised by scanning electron microscopy. This work validates the use of porcine small intestinal mucus collected from fully-grown pigs for studying colloidal transport of sub-micron sized particles in mucus under conditions mimicking the adult human small intestinal environment.


Macierzanka A., Menard O., Dupont D., Gutkowski K., Staroń R., Krupa L. Colloidal transport of lipid digesta in human and porcine small intestinal mucus. Food Research International, 138 (2020) 109752.


Impact Factor 2019 = 4.972, Pkt. MNiSW = 140


Small intestinal mucus transport of food-derived particulates has not been extensively studied, despite mucus being a barrier nutrients need to cross before absorption. We used complex dispersions of digesta obtained from simulated, dynamic gastrointestinal digestion of yogurt to examine the penetrability of human and porcine mucus to the particles formed of lipolysis products. Quantitative, time-lapse confocal microscopy revealed a sieve-like behaviour of the pig jejunal and ileal mucus. The digesta diffusivity decreased significantly over the first 30 min of mucus penetration, and then remained constant at ca. 5 × 10-12 m2 s−1 (approx. 70% decrease from initial values). A non-significantly different penetrability was recorded for the ileal mucus of adult humans. The digesta diffusion rates in neonatal, jejunal mucus of 2 week old piglets were 5–8 times higher than in the three different types of adult mucus. This is the first report that validates the mucus of fully-grown pigs as a human-relevant substitute for mucus permeation studies of nutrients/bio-actives and/or complex colloidal dispersions (e.g., post-digestion food particulates, orally-administrated delivery systems).


Pacyna-Kuchta A.D., Jakubas D., Frankowski M., Polkowska Ż., Wojczulanis-Jakubas K. Exposure of a small Arctic seabird, the little auk (Alle alle) breeding in Svalbard, to selected elements throughout the course of a year. Science of the Total Environment, 732 (2020) 139103.


Impact Factor 2019 = 6.551, Pkt. MNiSW = 200


The Arctic marine ecosystem can be altered by processes of natural and anthropogenic origin. Spatio-temporal variation in species exposure to contamination is still poorly understood. Here, we studied elemental concentrations in the non-lethally collected samples from the most numerous seabird in European Arctic, the little auk (Alle alle) nesting in one breeding colony in Svalbard. This seabird spent the breeding season in the high-Arctic zone and the non-breeding period in sub-Arctic areas what may implicate spatio-temporal variation in elements bioaccumulation. We determined concentrations of 19 elements in adults feathers to determine levels of exposure during part of the pre-breeding (n = 74) and post-breeding (n = 74) seasons, feathers from nestlings (n = 18) to determine local contamination, and chick down (n = 16) and post-hatching eggshells (n = 18) to determine maternal input to offspring. During the pre-breeding period adults accumulated in their feathers significantly more Hg (one third of feathers exceeded the established toxicity threshold), Se and Mn compared to the post-breeding period. It reflects a higher exposition of birds to contaminants in pre-breeding moult areas outside the High Arctic compared to the post-breeding moult in the High Arctic. Sex differences in adult feathers representing the post-breeding period were found only for Ca and Zn with higher values in females. Chick down was characterized by high levels of several essential elements, an intermediate level of Hg and Se, and the highest Se:Hg molar ratios of all groups. Chick body feathers had the highest level of Cu and K among all the studied groups. Post-hatching eggshells were characterized by high Sr level (exceeding 2000 μg/g). Concentrations of several non-essential elements (Bi, Cd, Cr, Hg, Ni and Pb) in them were below method detection limits.


Pacyna-Kuchta A.D., Wietrzyk-Pełka P., Węgrzyn M.H., Frankowski M., Polkowska Ż. A screening of select toxic and essential elements and persistent organic pollutants in the fur of Svalbard reindeer. Chemosphere, 245 (2020) 125458.


Impact Factor 2019 = 5.778, Pkt. MNiSW = 100


Reindeers play an important role in the polar ecosystem, being long-lived sole vegetarians feeding on local vegetation. They can be used as a valuable bioindicator, helping us to understand contaminants’ impact on the polar terrestrial ecosystem. Still, scarce data exist from research in which polar herbivores (especially those from the European parts of the Arctic) were a major study subject for trace elements and persistent organic pollutant determination. Here, Svalbard reindeer fur has been used to determine metals, non-metals and metalloids using ICP-MS, and several persistent organic pollutants including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) using gas chromatography coupled to a tandem mass spectrometer (GC-MS/MS). Samples were collected from reindeer populations living in the area near Ny-Ålesund and Longyearbyen. Essential elements like Fe, Mg, Zn, K, Ca, Cu predominated in the trace elements profile. Median values of As, Cd, Co, Li, Ni, Se and V were all below 0.5 μg/g dw. Mercury was below detection limit in all samples, while the Pb median varied from 0.35 to 0.74 μg/g dw. Except acenaphthylene and fluorene, PAHs were detectable only in samples collected in the vicinity of Longyearbyen. Of 15 studied pesticides, only DDT and its metabolites were above the detection limit, and, of PCBs, only PCB28.


Łozińska N., Głowacz-Różyńska A., Artichowicz W., Lu Y., Jungnickel C. Microencapsulation of fish oil - determination of optimal wall material and encapsulation methodology. Jounal of Food Engineering, 268 (2020) 109730.


Impact Factor 2019 = 4.499, Pkt. MNiSW = 140


For the first time, we present a meta-analysis of experimental and literature data to determine which microencapsulation methodology, and which wall material are best suited to protect fish oil. Our analysis covered a period of several decades of research (1984–2018). The analysis was conducted on 196 literature data-points, and 16 data-points determined experimentally for this publication. PLS regression was used to determine the influence of the predictors, with a variety of rational (k-means, Kohonen SOM, and Kennard-Stone) and random training/test division methods. Analysis of the applicability domain, determined by calculating the convex hull of the points, clearly showed that rational division methods are better than random division. It was found, that spray-granulation is best suited to protect fish oil. On the other hand, the commonly cited method of spray-drying performs quite badly. In addition, we found that the best wall materials are protein + lipid + carbohydrate and protein + lipid. The commonly used protein + carbohydrate again fared poorly. Meta-analysis such as these are crucial for the overview of methods and materials employed in the design of functional foods.


Macierzanka A., Torcello-Gómez A., Jungnickel C., Maldonado-Valderrama J. Bile salts in digestion and transport of lipids. Advances in Colloid and Interface Science, 274 (2019) 102045.


Impact Factor 2019 = 9.922, Pkt. MNiSW = 200


Because of their unusual chemical structure, bile salts (BS) play a fundamental role in intestinal lipid digestion and transport. BS have a planar arrangement of hydrophobic and hydrophilic moieties, which enables the BS molecules to form peculiar self-assembled structures in aqueous solutions. This molecular arrangement also has an influence on specific interactions of BS with lipid molecules and other compounds of ingested food and digestive media. Those comprise the complex scenario in which lipolysis occurs. In this review, we discuss the BS synthesis, composition, bulk interactions and mode of action during lipid digestion and transport. We look specifically into surfactant-related functions of BS that affect lipolysis, such as interactions with dietary fibre and emulsifiers, the interfacial activity in facilitating lipase and colipase anchoring to the lipid substrate interface, and finally the role of BS in the intestinal transport of lipids. Unravelling the roles of BS in the processing of lipids in the gastrointestinal tract requires a detailed analysis of their interactions with different compounds. We provide an update on the most recent findings concerning two areas of BS involvement: lipolysis and intestinal transport. We first explore the interactions of BS with various dietary fibres and food emulsifiers in bulk and at interfaces, as these appear to be key aspects for understanding interactions with digestive media. Next, we explore the interactions of BS with components of the intestinal digestion environment, and the role of BS in displacing material from the oil-water interface and facilitating adsorption of lipase. We look into the process of desorption, solubilisation of lipolysis, products and formation of mixed micelles. Finally, the BS-driven interactions of colloidal particles with the small intestinal mucus layer are considered, providing new findings for the overall assessment of the role of BS in lipid digestion and intestinal transport. This review offers a unique compilation of well-established and most recent studies dealing with the interactions of BS with food emulsifiers, nanoparticles and dietary fibre, as well as with the luminal compounds of the gut, such as lipase-colipase, triglycerides and intestinal mucus. The combined analysis of these complex interactions may provide crucial information on the pattern and extent of lipid digestion. Such knowledge is important for controlling the uptake of dietary lipids or lipophilic pharmaceuticals in the gastrointestinal tract through the engineering of novel food structures or colloidal drug-delivery systems.


Macierzanka A., Mackie A.R., Krupa L. Permeability of the small intestinal mucus for physiologically relevant studies: Impact of mucus location and ex vivo treatment. Scientific Reports, 9 (2019) 17516.


Impact Factor 2019 = 3.998, Pkt. MNiSW = 140


The small intestinal mucus is a complex colloidal system that coats the intestinal mucosa. It allows passage on nutrients/pharmaceuticals from the gut lumen towards the epithelium, whilst preventing it from direct contact with luminal microorganisms. Mucus collected from intestinal tissue is often used in studies looking at inter-mucosal transport of food particulates, drug carriers, etc. However, detaching the highly hydrated native mucus from the tissue and storing it frozen prior to use may disrupt its physiological microstructure, and thus selective barrier properties. Multiple-particle tracking experiments showed that microstructural organisation of native, jejunal mucus depends on its spatial location in the intestinal mucosa. The inter-villus mucus was less heterogeneous than the mucus covering villi tips in the pig model used. Collecting mucus from tissue and subjecting it to freezing and thawing did not significantly affect (P > 0.05) its permeability to model, sub-micron sized particles, and the microviscosity profile of the mucus reflected the overall profiles recorded for the native mucus in the tissue. This implies the method of collecting and storing mucus is a reliable ex vivo treatment for the convenient planning and performing of mucus-permeability studies that aim to mimic physiological conditions of the transport of molecules/particles in native mucus.


Szumała P., Jungnickel C., Kozłowska-Tylingo K., Jacyna B., Cal K. Transdermal transport of collagen and hyaluronic acid using water in oil microemulsion. International Journal of Pharmaceutics, 572 (2019) 118738.


Impact Factor 2019 = 4.845, Pkt. MNiSW = 100


Collagen and hyaluronic acid (HA) are biopolymers that affect the appearance and condition of the skin. Delivery of these compounds into the skin is highly challenging since have a number of disadvantageous properties, such as high molecular weight and hydrophilicity. Here, we evaluated the transdermal penetration of low and high molecular weight collagen and HA from microemulsions. A number of microemulsion formulations, differing in the content of polymers and surfactants (i.e. penetration promoters), were used for the permeation study. In addition, a correlation was made between the composition of these microemulsions and the polymers transport efficiency. The results indicate that, microemulsions enable transdermal permeation of collagen and HA. The concentration of polymers and the solubilization capacity of microemulsions had the greatest influence on the permeation. Surprisingly, the molecular weight of polymers and the content of other components affected the size of microemulsion particles, and thus these parameters had an indirect influence on the permeation process. This study demonstrated therefore the potential therapeutic use of microemulsion with collagen and HA in improving and regenerating the barrier of aged or diseased skin.


Wojewódka P., Aranowski R., Jungnickel C. Mass transfer in Spinning Fluids Reactor — Measurement and prediction. Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, 80 (2019) 712-721.


Impact Factor 2019 = 5.278, Pkt. MNiSW = 100


Specific mass transfer area (a) and overall volumetric mass transfer coefficient (kLa) are mass transfer parameters commonly used in the description and comparison of various chemical reactors’ constructions. Determination of these was performed for Spinning Fluids Reactor (SFR). Sodium sulfite oxidation in the presence of cobalt ion catalyst was used for the determination of a and kLa. The a and kLa were successful predicted. Overall, the a and kLa is one order of magnitude larger than any gas liquid contactor to date.


Brodkorb A., Egger L., Alminger M., Alvito P., Assuncão R., Balance S., Bohn T., Bourlieu-Lacanal C., Boutrou R., Carriére F., Clemente A., Corredig M., Dupont D., Dufour C., Edwards C., Golding M., Karakaya S., Kirkhus B., Le Feunteun S., Lesmes U., Macierzanka A., Mackie A.R., Matins C., Marze S., McClements D.J., Ménard O., Minekus M., Portmann R., Santos C.N., Souchon I., Singh R.P., Vegarud G., Wickham M.S.J., Weitschies W., Recio I. INFOGEST static in vitro simulation of gastrointestinal food digestion. Nature Protocols, 14 (2019) 991-1014.

Full-text access to a view-only version at https://rdcu.be/brEMd

Impact Factor 2019 = 10.419, Pkt. MNiSW = 200


Developing a mechanistic understanding of the impact of food structure and composition on human health has increasingly involved simulating digestion in the upper gastrointestinal tract. These simulations have used a wide range of different conditions that often have very little physiological relevance, and this impedes the meaningful comparison of results. The standardized protocol presented here is based on an international consensus developed by the COST INFOGEST network. The method is designed to be used with standard laboratory equipment and requires limited experience to encourage a wide range of researchers to adopt it. It is a static digestion method that uses constant ratios of meal to digestive fluids and a constant pH for each step of digestion. This makes the method simple to use but not suitable for simulating digestion kinetics. Using this method, food samples are subjected to sequential oral, gastric and intestinal digestion while parameters such as electrolytes, enzymes, bile, dilution, pH and time of digestion are based on available physiological data. This amended and improved digestion method (INFOGEST 2.0) avoids challenges associated with the original method, such as the inclusion of the oral phase and the use of gastric lipase. The method can be used to assess the endpoints resulting from digestion of foods by analyzing the digestion products (e.g., peptides/amino acids, fatty acids, simple sugars) and evaluating the release of micronutrients from the food matrix. The whole protocol can be completed in ~7 d, including ~5 d required for the determination of enzyme activities.


Böttger F., Dupont D., Marcinkowska D., Bajka B., Mackie A., Macierzanka A. Which casein in sodium caseinate is most resistant to in vitro digestion? Effect of emulsification and enzymatic structuring. Food Hydrocolloids, 88 (2019) 114-118.


Impact Factor 2019 = 7.053, Pkt. MNiSW = 140


We investigated the resistance of individual constituent casein epitopes (αS1-, αS2-, β- and κ-CN) in food-grade milk protein sodium caseinate (NaCN) to simulated human gastro-duodenal digestion. The influence of NaCN adsorption to the surface of oil-in-water emulsion droplets and the effect of crosslinking of the protein with enzyme transglutaminase (TG) on the proteolysis were studied by indirect ELISA. TG crosslinking rendered fragments of casein molecules significantly resistant to digestion. However, it depended on the type of casein and whether NaCN was presented in solution or emulsion. The crosslinking was found to considerably hinder the digestion of several amino acid regions in one of the major caseins of NaCN, β-CN. For αS1- and αS2-CN, only limited resistance to digestive enzymes was observed after NaCN had been crosslinked in solution but not (or to a limited extent) in emulsion. κ-CN proved to be the least resistant to the enzymatic hydrolysis regardless of the TG treatment. Our work shows for the first time how the digestibility of individual components of important food-grade protein ingredients can differ in a complex, colloidal food system. It also shows an example of how the digestibility can be modulated by chemical and physical structuring.


Nalazek-Rudnicka K., Kłosowska-Chomiczewska I., Wasik A., Macierzanka A. MRM–MS of marker peptides and their abundance as a tool for authentication of meat species and meat cuts in single-cut meat products. Food Chemistry, 283 (2019) 367-374.


Impact Factor 2019 = 6.306, Pkt. MNiSW = 200


The abundance of protein markers in different types of meat cuts was explored in the context of authentication of raw meat (pork, beef and chicken) and processed meat products. Peptides originating from myoglobin (Mb) and myosin (My) were analyzed using multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry (MRM–MS). Analytical protocol was optimized for good repeatability (CV < 10%) and high sensitivity. The MS signal intensity of Mb marker peptides in raw pork depended significantly on the cut type (e.g. ham vs knuckle). Importantly, a similar pattern in the abundance of the marker peptides was found for processed meat products made of different types of pork cut, despite the food processing applied. This suggests the protocol can be used for authentication of raw pork cuts and processed products made of different cuts of pork. More uniform contents of Mb markers were found in raw beef cuts, and for My markers in raw chicken cuts.


Wojewódka P., Aranowski R., Jungnickel C. Residence Time Distribution in Rapid Multiphase Reactors. Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, 69 (2019) 370-378.


Impact Factor 2019 = 5.278, Pkt. MNiSW = 100


Residence time distribution (RTD) provides information about average hydraulic residence time and the distribution of material in the reactor. A method for determining RTD for reactors with very short hydraulic residence times is deconvolution based on extraction of real RTD by the analysis of a non-ideal input signal. The mean residence time and dispersion were determined for the Spinning Fluids Reactor (SFR). For the first time the deconvolution method was performed for a system where the tracer pulse signal is wider than actual RTD of the examined device. A prediction model for of the SFR was also developed, and validated.


Plata-Gryl M., Jungnickel C., Boczkaj G. An improved scalable method of isolating asphaltenes. Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering, 167 (2018) 608-614.


Impact Factor 2018 = 2.382, Pkt. MNiSW = 40


A new, improved and scalable procedure of asphaltene fraction isolation is presented and compared to standard test methods. The new procedure uses 1:40 feedstock to solvent (n-heptane) ratio (g/mL), filtration through a cellulosic thimble and extensive washing in a Soxhlet type extractor. The group type composition and purity of the asphaltene fractions have been examined using thin-layer chromatography with flame-ionization detection. This study revealed that the new procedure provides a higher purity of asphaltene fraction resulting in a more accurate determination of its content in bitumens when comparing to the standard test method. Moreover, an attempt of evaluation of the scale-up possibility of the proposed and standard test methods was made, revealing that new procedure is more scalable than standard test methods. It is possible to obtain large quantities of a high purity asphaltene fraction even on a process scale. This feature is crucial for technical analytics, for researchers studying asphaltenes characteristic as well as for other novel applications of asphaltenes such as its use as sorbents in separation techniques.


Szumała P., Wysocka I. Effect of gelation and storage conditions on the oxidative stability of microemulsion and nanoemulsion delivery systems. European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 124 (2018) 17-25.


Impact Factor 2017 = 3.466, Pkt. MNiSW = 35


Increased interest in the use of microemulsion and nanoemulsion delivery systems for medical, cosmetic and food purposes, promotes the development of research on their physical and chemical stability, and the safety of use. Here, we have for the first time evaluated the oxidative stability of linseed oil dispersed in the microemulsion, nanoemulsion, and their gelled systems, stored under different conditions, and compared to the bulk oil. Oxidative stability was determined by measuring the peroxide value and p-anisidine value of the oil phase. All systems had an identical proportion of oil to surfactant mixture and were obtained by low energy methods. Carbopol 940 was used as the gelator. The influence of sunlight in ambient conditions, elevated temperature, oxygen presence and UV radiation on the oxidation of oil in emulsions was determined. The results indicate different influence of the analyzed conditions on the oxidation stages of individual emulsions. Due to the high transparency and small particle sizes, micro-, nanoemulsions, and particularly their gelled forms were the most sensitive to UV radiation. However, the gelation process inhibited the oxidation caused by temperature and the presence of oxygen. In addition, the results show a counter-intuitive result in that, under all test conditions, the oxidative stability of the oil was higher in emulsions compared to bulk oil.


Bohn T., Carriere F., Day L., Deglaire A., Egger L., Freitas D., Golding M., Le Feunteun S., Macierzanka A., Menard O., Miralles B., Moscovici A., Portmann R., Recio I., Rémond D., Santé-Lhoutelier V., Wooster T.J., Lesmes U., Mackie A.R., Dupont D. Correlation between in vitro and in vivo data on food digestion. What can we predict with static in vitro digestion models? Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 58 (2018) 2239-2261.


Impact Factor 2017 = 6.015, Pkt. MNiSW = 50


During the last decade, there has been a growing interest in understanding food's digestive fate in order to strengthen the possible effects of food on human health. Ideally, food digestion should be studied in vivo on humans but this is not always ethically and financially possible. Therefore, simple in vitro digestion models mimicking the gastrointestinal tract have been proposed as alternatives to in vivo experiments. Thus, it is no surprise that these models are increasingly used by the scientific community, although their various limitations to fully mirror the complexity of the digestive tract. Therefore, the objective of this article was to call upon the collective experiences of scientists involved in Infogest (an international network on food digestion) to review and reflect on the applications of in vitro digestion models, the parameters assessed in such studies and the physiological relevance of the data generated when compared to in vivo data. The authors provide a comprehensive review in vitro and in vivo digestion studies investigating the digestion of macronutrients (i.e. proteins, lipids and carbohydrates) as well as studies of the bioaccessibility and bioavailability of micronutrients and phytochemicals. The main conclusion is that evidences show that despite the simplicity of in vitro models they are often very useful in predicting outcomes of the digestion in vivo. However, this has relies on the complexity of in vitro models and their tuning towards answering specific questions related to human digestion physiology, which leaves a vast room for future studies and improvements.


Kłosowska-Chomiczewska I.E., Artichowicz W., Preiss U., Jungnickel C. Multicomponent ionic liquid CMC prediction. Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, 19 (2017) 25309-25318.


Impact Factor 2017 = 3.906, Pkt. MNiSW = 40


We created a model to predict CMC of ILs based on 704 experimental values published in 43 publications since 2000. Our model was able to predict CMC of variety of ILs in binary or ternary system in a presence of salt or alcohol. The molecular volume of IL (Vm), solvent-accessible surface (Ŝ), solvation enthalpy (ΔsolvG), concentration of salt (Cs) or alcohol (Ca) and their molecular volumes (Vms and Vma, respectively) were chosen as descriptors, and Kernel Support Vector Machine (KSVM) and Evolutionary Algorithm (EA) as regression methodologies to create the models. Data was split into training and validation set (80/20) and subjected to bootstrap aggregation. KSVM provided better fit with average R2 of 0.843, and MSE of 0.608, whereas EA resulted in R2 of 0.794 and MSE of 0.973. From the sensitivity analysis it was shown that Vm and Ŝ have the highest impact on ILs micellization in both binary and ternary systems, however surprisingly in the presence of alcohol the Vm becomes insignificant/irrelevant. Micelle stabilizing or destabilizing influence of the descriptors depends upon the additives. Previous attempts at modelling the CMC of ILs was generally limited to small number of ILs in simplified (binary) systems. We however showed successful prediction of the CMC over a range of different systems (binary and ternary).


Kupper S., Kłosowska-Chomiczewska I., Szumała P. Collagen and hyaluronic acid hydrogel in water-in-oil microemulsiondelivery systems. Carbohydrate Polymers, 175 (2017) 347–354.


Impact Factor 2017 = 5.158, Pkt. MNiSW = 40


The increase in skin related health issues has promoted interest in research on the efficacy of microemulsion in dermal and transdermal delivery of active ingredients. Here, we assessed the water-in-oil microemulsion capacity to incorporate two natural polymers, i.e. collagen and hyaluronic acid with low and high molecular weight. Systems were extensively characterized in terms of conductivity, phase inversion studies, droplet diameter, polydispersity index and rheological properties. The results of this research indicate that the structure and extent of water phase in microemulsions is governed by ratio and amount of surfactant mixture (sorbitan ester derivatives). However, results have also shown that collagen, depending upon the weight of the molecule and its surface activity, influence the droplet size of the microemulsions. While the hyaluronic acid, especially with high molecular weight, due to the water-binding ability and hydrogel formation alters the rheological properties of the microemulsion, thus providing viscous consistency of the formulation.


Markiewicz M., Jungnickel C., Stolte S., Białk-Bielińska A., Kumirska J., Mrozik W. Primary degradation of antidiabetic drugs. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 324 (2017) 428-435.


Impact Factor 2017 = 6.434, Pkt. MNiSW = 45


Type 2 diabetes is a chronic disease affecting a large portion of the world population and is treated by orally administered drugs. Since these drugs are often taken in high doses and are excreted unchanged or partially metabolised many of them are nowadays detected in surface waters or wastewater treatment plants effluents. Unmetabolised antidiabetics or some of their transformation products retain their pharmacological activity, therefore their presence in the environment is highly undesired. One of the main routes of elimination from wastewaters or surface waters is biodegradation. Within this work we tested primary biodegradation of: metformin and its metabolite guanylurea, acarbose, glibenclamide, gliclazide and glimepiride. We also inspected what might be the extent of the degradation by examining the products formed during the degradation using liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. Transformation of diabetes staple drug metformin to dead-end product guanylurea was generally confirmed. An alternative, though rather minor pathway leading to complete mineralisation was also found. Complete primary degradation was observed for acarbose, glibenclamide and glimepiride whereas gliclazide was shown to be resistant to biodegradation. These results allow a preliminary assessment of environmental persistency of a very important group of pharmaceuticals and show need for implementing monitoring programs.


Markiewicz M., Jungnickel C., Stolte S., Białk-Bielińska A., Kumirska J., Mrozik W. Ultimate biodegradability and ecotoxicity of orally administered antidiabetic drugs. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 333 (2017) 154-161.


Impact Factor 2017 = 6.434, Pkt. MNiSW = 45


Hypoglycaemic pharmaceuticals are recently more and more frequently detected in the environment. In our previous study, we have shown that even though many of them undergo significant primary degradation some are transformed to stable products or undergo such transformation that a large part of the structure is still preserved. One of the main routes of elimination from wastewaters or surface waters is biodegradation and a lack thereof leads to accumulation in the environment. Within this work we tested the ultimate biodegradability of six oral antidiabetics: metformin and its main metabolite guanylurea, acarbose, glibenclamide, gliclazide, glimepiride and repaglinide. We also compared the experimental results obtained in this and accompanying work with models designed to predict biodegradability and showed that these models are only moderately successful. Additionally, we examined these compounds in acute Daphnia magna test to check if they might pose an ecotoxicological threat. Combining the results of biodegradability and toxicity tests allows a preliminary assessment of their potential environmental impact.


Aranowski R., Wojewódka P., Zielińska-Jurek A., Bokotko R., Jungnickel C. Spinning Fluids Reactor: A new design of a gas–liquid contactor. Chemical Engineering and Processing: Process Intensification, 116 (2017) 40-47.


Impact Factor 2017 = 2.826, Pkt. MNiSW = 30


Current trends in chemical reactor design are based on adapting these to the requirements of a particular chemical process. Processes involving reactions between the gas and liquid phase in particular require precise adjustment of all parameters. The common denominator for most modern design solutions is enhancement of the mass transfer area and the overall volumetric mass transfer coefficient. Gas – liquid contactors evolved from a typical stirred vessel to a plethora of other types suitable for many applications, such as bubbling columns. The Spinning Fluids Reactor presented in this paper uses tangential inlets of both fluids that cause a swirling flow. High tangential velocity of the liquid phase results in a high shearing force that decreases the size of the generated bubbles and increases the mass transfer area per bulk liquid. The reactor of our design can reach gas-liquid interfacial areas up to 16 400 m2 per cubic meter, which is an order of magnitude higher than values obtained in the majority of gas-liquid contactors what we believe is a significant improvement over common designs.


Kłosowska-Chomiczewska I.E., Mędrzycka K., Hallmann E., Karpenko E., Pokynbroda T., Macierzanka A., Jungnickel C. Rhamnolipid CMC prediction. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 488 (2017) 10-19.


Impact Factor 2017 = 5.091, Pkt. MNiSW = 30


Relationships between the purity, pH, hydrophobicity (log Kow) of the carbon substrate, and the critical micelle concentration (CMC) of rhamnolipid type biosurfactants (RL) were investigated using a quantitative structure–property relationship (QSPR) approach and are presented here for the first time. Measured and literature CMC values of 97 RLs, representing biosurfactants at different stages of purification, were considered. An arbitrary scale for RLs purity was proposed and used in the modelling. A modified evolutionary algorithm was used to create clusters of equations to optimally describe the relationship between CMC and log Kow, pH and purity (the optimal equation had an R2 of 0.8366). It was found that hydrophobicity of the carbon substrate used for the biosynthesis of the RL had the most significant influence on the final CMC of the RL. Purity of the RLs was also found to have a significant impact, where generally the less pure the RL the higher the CMC. These results were in accordance with our experimental data. Therefore, our model equation may be used for controlling the biosynthesis of biosurfactants with properties targeted for specific applications.


Szumała P., Luty N. Effect of different crystalline structures on W/O and O/W/O wax emulsion stability. Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, 499 (2016) 131-140.


Impact Factor 2016 = 2.714, Pkt. MNiSW = 30


The possibility of emulsion stabilization using mineral and vegetable wax particles only (without surfactant) was investigated. Mineral waxes, paraffin wax and ceresin, and a vegetable wax, carnauba wax, were used. The content of the wax particles and the water to oil proportion were found crucial for the stability of all emulsions. Some emulsions were also produced with a liquid wax (i.e. jojoba oil). The multiple light scattering method was used to determine the stability of emulsion systems during storage. The presence of crystalline structures were confirmed by microscopic analysis.

The results show that all tested waxes can independently stabilize emulsion systems. The wax crystallization directly on the droplet surface provided stability against droplet coalescence while the continuous phase wax crystals reduced inter-droplet collisions. However, the effective protection against coalescence and the phase separation takes only place in the presence of appropriate amounts of different waxes and with specific proportions of water to oil phases. The emulsions type was denoted as W/O in the presence of mineral waxes and O/W/O in systems with vegetable wax. Emulsions with jojoba oil and mineral waxes had a similar stability compare to emulsions with the same composition but without the liquid wax. In contrast, phase separation were observed in emulsions obtained with two vegetable components (jojoba oil and carnauba wax). It might have been associated with a high wettability of the carnauba wax surface by jojoba oil that could have made the wax particles unsuitable for Pickering stabilization of emulsion.


Rajewska A., Mędrzycka K., Hallmann E., Soloviov D.V. Small-angle neutron scattering study of the structure of mixed micellar solutions based on heptaethylene glycol monotetradecyl ether and cesium dodecyl sulfate. Crystallography Reports, 61(1) (2016) 126-128.


Impact Factor 2016 = 0.563, Pkt. MNiSW = 20


The micellization in mixed aqueous systems based on a nonionic surfactant, heptaethylene glycol monotetradecyl ether (C14E7), and an anionic surfactant, cesium dodecyl sulfate, has been investigated by small-angle neutron scattering. Preliminary data on the behavior of the C14E7 aqueous solutions (with three concentrations, 0.17, 0.5, and 1%) mixed with a small amount of anionic surfactant, cesium dodecyl sulfate, are reported.


Trawińska A., Hallmann E., Mędrzycka K. The effect of alkyl chain length on synergistic effects in micellization and surface tension reduction in nonionic gemini (S-10) and anionic surfactants mixtures. Colloids and Surfaces A- Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, 506 (2016) 114-126.


Impact Factor 2016 = 2.714, Pkt. MNiSW = 30


Mixtures of nonionic gemini surfactant S-10 (α, α'-[2,4,7,9-tetrametyl-5-decyne-4,7-diyl]bis[Ͽ-hydroxy-polioxyetylene]) with anionic SRS (sodium alkylsulfates) and SRSO3 (sodium alkylsulfonates) of different alkyl chain length (from 10 to 14 carbon atoms) were investigated. Surface tension measurements were used to find the cmc values and other adsorption parameters. The Clint, Rubingh⿿s and Rosen theories were applied for evaluation of the synergistic effects in mixed films and mixed micelles formation. It has been documented that in the process of micellization strong synergy exists, while in mixed film formation it is not so evident. In mixtures of S-10 with monomeric surfactants, the synergistic interactions in mixed micelles formation increase with the chain length of monomeric surfactant. The composition of mixed films is different than the composition of mixed micelles, because molar fraction of S-10 in monolayers is much higher than its contribution in mixed micelles at the same bulk composition. The size of micelles is the biggest for S-10 and in case of surfactants mixtures is smaller than that, for individual components.


Marcinkowska D. Application of magnetic nanoparticles for water treatment. Technical Issues, 2 (2016) 33-38.



In this study magnetic nanoparticles were fabricated and used for water treatment. Nanoparticles were prepared in two ways. The first one involved NiZn ferrite nanoparticles synthesized by co-precipitation of metal cations with sodium hydroxide at high temperature. The second one featured maghemite nanoparticles was prepared by salt-assisted solid-state reaction. Modification and functionalization of nanoparticles surface was investigated. Nanoparticles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Modified nanoparticles were added to the solution of desired concentration of methylene green. Adsorption ability was examined trough ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-VIS). For NiZn ferrite and also for maghemite nanoparticles results were positive. Both of complexes can be used for water treatment with 51% success for maghemite and 72% for NiZn ferrite nanoparticles.


Krasodomska O., Paolicelli P., Cesa S., Casadei M.A., Jungnickel C. Protection and viability of fruit seeds oils by-nanostructured lipid carrier (NLC) nanosuspensions. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 479 (2016) 25-33.


Impact Factor 2016 = 4.233, Pkt. MNiSW = 30


In this paper, we focused on the development of nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) for dermal application. The NLC matrix was designed as a protective reservoir of biological active compounds that naturally occur in domestic fruit seed oils.

Over the years, emulsions, as a popular physicochemical form of personal care products, were refined in order to obtain the best possible penetration into the skin of any bioactive compound introduced in the formulation, such as polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). In fact, the bioactive components are useful only if they are able to penetrate the skin unchanged. Therefore, an alternate way to deliver naturally occurring PUFAs is needed. NLCs present a novel delivery and protection system for the PUFAs. The cold pressed fruit seed oils obtained from waste material were used in this paper: blackcurrant, blackberry, raspberry, strawberry and plum. Thermodynamic (DSC) and structural techniques (1H NMR) were applied in order to characterize the obtained systems in terms of seed oil incorporation into the NLC, and oxidative stability tests were used to confirm the protective quality of the systems. During the formulation optimization process the most stable nanosuspension with the best seed oil incorporation was a mixture of 4% nonionic emulsifiers, 88% water and 6% lipids with a ratio of 6:2, wax:oil. The oxidative stability tests showed that the NLC was an effective method of protection of the PUFAs.


Mackie A.R, Macierzanka A., Aarak K., Rigby N.M., Parker R., Channel G.A., Harding S.E., Bajka B.H. Sodium alginate decreases the permeability of intestinal mucus. Food Hydrocolloids, 52 (2016) 749-755.


Impact Factor 2016 = 4.747, Pkt. MNiSW = 45


In the small intestine the nature of the environment leads to a highly heterogeneous mucus layer primarily composed of the MUC2 mucin. We set out to investigate whether the soluble dietary fibre sodium alginate could alter the permeability of the mucus layer. The alginate was shown to freely diffuse into the mucus and to have minimal effect on the bulk rheology when added at concentrations below 0.1%. Despite this lack of interaction between the mucin and alginate, the addition of alginate had a marked effect on the diffusion of 500 nm probe particles, which decreased as a function of increasing alginate concentration. Finally, we passed a protein stabilised emulsion through a simulation of oral, gastric and small intestinal digestion. We subsequently showed that the addition of 0.1% alginate to porcine intestinal mucus decreased the diffusion of fluorescently labelled lipid present in the emulsion digesta. This reduction may be sufficient to reduce problems associated with high rates of lipid absorption such as hyperlipidaemia.


Szumała P., Mówińska A. Perfectly Wetting Mixtures of Surfactants from Renewable Resources: The Interaction and Synergistic Effects on Adsorption and Micellization. Journal of Surfactants and Detergents, (2016) 1-9.


Impact Factor 2016 = 1.45, Pkt. MNiSW = 25


This paper presents a study of the surface properties of mixtures of surfactants originating from renewable sources, i.e., alkylpolyglucoside (APG), ethoxylated fatty alcohol (AE), and sodium soap (Na soap). The main objective was to optimize the surfactant ratio which produces the highest wetting properties during the analysis of the solution of the individual surfactants, two- and three-component mixtures, and at different pH values. The results showed the existence of a synergistic effect in lowering the interfacial tension, critical micelle concentration and the formation of mixed micelles in selected solutions. We found that best wetting properties were measured for the binary AE:APG mixtures. It has been demonstrated that slightly lower contact angles values were observed on Teflon and glass surfaces for the AE:APG:soap mixtures but the results were obtained for higher concentration of the components. In addition, all studied solutions have very good surface properties in acidic, basic and neural media. However, the AE:soap (molar ratio of 1:2), AE:APG (2:1) and AE:APG:soap (1:1:1) compositions improved their wetting power at pH 7 on the aluminium and glass surfaces, as compared to solutions at other pH values tested (selected Θ values close to zero—perfectly wetting liquids). All described effects detected would allow less surfactant to be used to achieve the maximum capacity of washing, wetting or solubilizing while minimizing costs and demonstrating environmental care.


Trawińska A., Hallmann E., Mędrzycka K. Synergistic effects in micellization and surface tension reduction in nonionic gemini S-10 and cationic RTAB surfactants mixtures. Colloids and Surfaces A- Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, 488 (2016) 162-172.


Impact Factor 2016 = 2.714, Pkt. MNiSW = 30


Mixtures of nonionic gemini surfactant S-10 (α,α′-[2,4,7,9-tetrametyl-5-decyne-4,7-diyl]bis[ω-hydroxy -polioxyetylene] with cationic alkyltrimethylammonium bromides of different alkyl chain length (RTAB) were investigated. Basing on surface tension measurements the cmc values and other adsorption parameters were found. The Clint, Rubing’s and Rosen theories were applied for evaluation of the synergistic effects in mixed films and mixed micelles formation. The molecular interaction parameters have negative values in all investigated mixtures, which confirm attractive forces between components. The magnitude of this forces depends on mixtures composition and in mixed micelles was higher than that in mixed films. It has been documented that in the process of micellization strong synergy exists, while in mixed film formation it is not so evident and was stated only in surface tension reduction efficiency. The composition of mixed films is different than the composition of mixed micelles, because a molar fraction of S-10 in monolayers is much higher than its contribution in mixed micelles at the same bulk composition.


Bajka B.H., Rigby N.M., Cross K.L., Macierzanka A., Mackie A.R. The influence of small intestinal mucus structure on particle transport ex vivo. Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, 135 (2015) 73-80.


Impact Factor 2015 = 3.902, Pkt. MNiSW = 35


Mucus provides a barrier to bacteria and toxins while allowing nutrient absorption and waste transport. Unlike colonic mucus, small intestinal mucus structure is poorly understood. This study aimed to provide evidence for a continuous, structured mucus layer and assess the diffusion of different sized particles through it. Mucus structure was assessed by histology and immunohistochemistry. Ultra-structure was assessed by scanning electron microscopy. Tracking of 100 nm and 500 nm latex beads was conducted using ex vivo porcine mucus. The porcine jejunum and ileum were filled with mucus. Layered MUC2 staining was visible throughout the small intestine, covering villus tips. Scanning electron microscopy showed net-like mucin sheets covering villi (211 ± 7 nm pore diameter). Particle tracking of 100 nm latex beads, showed no inhibition of diffusion through mucus while 500 nm beads displayed limited diffusion. These results suggest a continuous mucus layer exists throughout the small intestine, which is highly stratified adjacent to the epithelium. The network observed is consistent with previous observations and correlates with stratified MUC2 staining. Mucin pore size is consistent with free diffusion of 100 nm and limited diffusion of 500 nm particles. Small Intestinal mucus structure has important implications for drug delivery systems and prevention and treatment of conditions like mucositis and inflammatory bowel disease.


Juvonen K.R., Macierzanka A., Lille M.E., Laaksonen D.E., Mykkänen H.M., Niskanen L.K.,  Pihlajamäki J., Mäkelä K.A., Mills C.E., Mackie A.R. Cross-linking of sodium caseinate-structured emulsion with transglutaminase alters postprandial metabolic and appetite responses in healthy young individuals. British Journal of Nutrition, 114(03) (2015) 418-429.


Impact Factor 2015 = 3.311, Pkt. MNiSW = 35


The physico-chemical and interfacial properties of fat emulsions influence lipid digestion and may affect postprandial responses. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of the modification of the interfacial layer of a fat emulsion by cross-linking on postprandial metabolic and appetite responses. A total of fifteen healthy individuals (26·5 (sem 6·9) years and BMI 21·9 (sem 2·0) kg/m2) participated in a cross-over design experiment in which they consumed two isoenergetic (1924 kJ (460 kcal)) and isovolumic (250 g) emulsions stabilised with either sodium caseinate (Cas) or transglutaminase-cross-linked sodium caseinate (Cas-TG) in a randomised order. Blood samples were collected from the individuals at baseline and for 6 h postprandially for the determination of serum TAG and plasma NEFA, cholecystokinin (CCK), glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), glucose and insulin responses. Appetite was assessed using visual analogue scales. Postprandial TAG and NEFA responses and gastric emptying (GE) rates were comparable between the emulsions. CCK increased more after the ingestion of Cas-TG than after the ingestion of Cas (P< 0·05), while GLP-1 responses did not differ between the two test emulsions. Glucose and insulin profiles were lower after consuming Cas-TG than after consuming Cas (P< 0·05). The overall insulin, glucose and CCK responses, expressed as areas above/under the curve, did not differ significantly between the Cas and Cas-TG meal conditions. Satiety ratings were reduced and hunger, desire to eat and thirst ratings increased more after the ingestion of Cas-TG than after the ingestion of Cas (P< 0·05). The present results suggest that even a subtle structural modification of the interfacial layer of a fat emulsion can alter the early postprandial profiles of glucose, insulin, CCK, appetite and satiety through decreased protein digestion without affecting significantly on GE or overall lipid digestion.


Krasodomska O., Jungnickel C. Viability of fruit seed oil O/W emulsions in personal care products. Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, 481 (2015) 468–475.


Impact Factor 2016 = 2.714, Pkt. MNiSW = 30


The use of fruit seed oils in personal care products is of significance to both their function and image. Poland is an important processor of fruit products within the EU, and thus has a large availability of seeds from domestic fruits, which are normally considered to be a waste material or feed for livestock. Unfortunately, current literature is scarce of the suitability of these oils for topical dermatological use in the form of cosmetic emulsion. Published data on these oils is generally limited to their use in the food industry. The aim of this paper is the determination of the viability of domestic fruit seeds, such as apple, blackberries, blackcurrants and strawberries as sources of unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs) in personal care products, such as oil-in-water emulsions. To that end the seed oils were tested for the fatty acids composition. Moreover, the seed oils were used as an additive in the oily phase components in O/W systems. The systems stability, rheological properties and the sensory analysis were tested in order to state their influence on system parameters and features. The best emulsion obtained during the formulation optimization process had the composition 4% and 5% of seed oil with an o:w phase ratio 20:80. The best stability had the emulsions with ratio polar:nonpolar lipid 60:40, respectively.


Szumała P. Structure of Microemulsion Formulated with Monoacylglycerols in the Presence of Polyols and Ethanol. Journal of Surfactants and Detergents, 18(1) (2015) 97-106.


Impact Factor 2015 = 1.853, Pkt. MNiSW = 25


The influence of polyols as cosurfactants (propylene glycol PG; glycerol G) and short chain alcohol as a cosolvent (ethanol EtOH) on the formation and solubilization capacity of the systems: hexadecane/monoacylglycerols (MAG)/polyol/water:EtOH, at 60 °C, was investigated. Electrical conductivity measurement, and the DSC method were applied to determine the structure and type of microemulsions formed. The dimension of the droplets was characterized by DLS. It has been stated that concentration of EtOH has a strong influence on the shape and extend the microemulsion areas and helps to avoid rigid structures such as gels, precipitates, and liquid crystals. It was found that, depending on the concentration of five-component systems, it was possible to obtain fully diluted microemulsions with dispersed particles size distribution ranging from 5 to 30 nm. Studied systems are changing the w/o structure into a bicontinuous system. The results of electrical conductivity showed that the electrical percolation threshold is dependent on the hydration of polar head groups in the whole system and the less rigid interfacial film due to the intercalation of ethanol. In addition, the surfactant/alcohol/polyol can strongly bind water in the inner phase so that it freezes below −10 °C and acts in part as ‘bound’ water. In the systems containing more than 50 mass% of polyols, with respect to the water, the all the water was non-freezable. Propylene glycol and glycerol are cryoprotectants protecting biological systems from massive ice crystallization, since they lower the freezing point of water.



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